The economy of New Zealand is the 53rd-largest national economy in the world measured by nominal gross domestic product (GDP) and 68th-largest in .
The economy of New Zealand is the 53rd -largest national economy in the world measured by nominal gross domestic product GDP and 68th -largest in the world measured by purchasing power parity PPP. It is one of the most globalised economies and depends greatly on international trade, mainly with Australiathe European Unionthe United StatesChinaSouth KoreaJapan and Canada.
The Closer Economic Relations online roulette new zealand with Australia means that New Zealand's economy is closely aligned with the Australian economy.
Mining, manufacturing, electricity, gas, water, and waste services accounted for The New Zealand dollar is the 10th most traded currency in the world. The New Zealand economy has been ranked first in the world for Social Progression, which covers such areas as Basic Human Needs, Foundations of Wellbeing, and the level of Opportunity available to its citizens.
New Zealand income levels, which used to be above those of many other countries in Western Europe prior to the crisis of the s, have dropped in relative terms and never recovered. As a result, the number of New Zealanders living in poverty has grown and income inequality has increased online roulette new zealand. New Zealand has also had persistent current account deficits since the early 70s, peaking at Despite New Zealand's persistent current account deficits, the balance on external goods and services has generally been positive.
National taxes are levied on personal and business income, and on the supply of online roulette new zealand and services GST. There is no capital gains tax although certain "gains" such as profits on the sale of patent rights are deemed to be income, income tax does apply to property transactions in certain circumstances, particularly speculation.
Local property taxes online roulette new zealand are managed and online roulette new zealand by local authorities. Some goods and services carry a specific tax, referred to as an excise or a duty such as alcohol excise or gaming duty.
These are collected by a range of government agencies such as the New Zealand Customs Service. There is no social security payroll tax or land tax in New Zealand. Only Mexico's citizens had a higher percentage-wise "take home" proportion of their salaries. Prior to the economic shock created by Britain's decision to join the EEC inremoving it as New Zealand's primary market for exports, unemployment in New Zealand was very low.
The official number of people unemployed in was only A year later it was Afterunemployment became a persistent economic and social issue in New Zealand. Recessions from —78 and greatly increased unemployment again. The low numbers correlated with a robust economy and a large backlog of job positions at all levels. The percentage of the population employed also increased in recent years, to The increase in the working population online casino stories is attributed to increasing wages and higher costs of living moving more people into employment.
This now makes New Zealand the 14th lowest among developed nations, below Canada's 7. House prices rose dramatically in the first years of the 21st century and byan average house cost is a deposit secured than six times household income. As a result, more and more people are being pushed out of the property market.
Those on low incomes are hardest hit, affecting many Maori and Pacific Islanders. New Zealand's relatively high mortgage rates are exacerbating the problem  even making it difficult for young people with steady jobs to buy their first home. Whether purchases are made online roulette new zealand New Zealanders or foreigners, it is generally those who are already well off that are buying the bulk of properties on the market.
This has had a dramatic effect on home ownership rates http://antiguo.info/us-online-gambling-rules.php Kiwis, now at its lowest online roulette new zealand since Almost half of that increase went to a small group who were already the richest in the country. This ratio shows the difference between high household incomes those in the 80th percentile and low click incomes those in the 20th percentile.
The inequality ratio increased between andand decreased until the onset of the Global Financial Crisis inincreasing again to and then declining again from then. Bythe disposable income of high-income households was more than two-and-a-half times larger than that of low-income households. Factors contributing to the growth in inequality include substantial cuts in the top income tax rate in combined with a surge in unemployment caused by Rogernomics and the stock market crash of which pushed more people onto welfare.
He online roulette new zealand the growing gap between rich and poor enables the rich to "exercise disproportionate political influence", and that "if disadvantaged citizens are not to be excluded from political life, they must have access to education, healthcare and social assistance".
This exacerbates a multitude of health and social problems such as high infant mortality, obesity, teenage pregnancy, crime and imprisonment. InPickett and Wilkinson were invited to Auckland and Dunedin to discuss the relevance of their research to New Zealand. Inlife expectancy at birth in New Zealand stood at In Decemberthe OECD released the Global Income Inequality Report which said "[r]ising here is estimated to have knocked more than 10 percentage points off growth in New Zealand" between and Inaroundchildren, a quarter of all children in New Zealand, were now "mired in poverty".
Statistics New Zealand also publishes a range of data on the economic well-being of New Zealanders and, inreleased a discussion paper highlighting the need for government agreement on the development of more useful criteria and statistics related to poverty. But New Zealand is unique among western OECD countries in that it does not collect 'dynamic' data which captures the extent to which people move in and out of poverty.
In over a dozen different reports were released which focused on the issue and the need to develop agreed ways of describing and measuring poverty.
Evidence for Action  which contains 78 recommendations to combat poverty. Dr Wills also set up the Child Poverty Go here  to highlight the living conditions of children in New Zealand on an ongoing basis. New Zealand has a universal superannuation scheme. Everyone aged 65 years old or over, who is online roulette new zealand New Zealand citizen or permanent resident and normally lives in New Zealand at the time they apply is eligible.
They must also have lived in New Zealand for at least 10 years since they turned 20 with five of those years being since they turned Time spent overseas in certain countries and for certain reasons may be counted for New Zealand Superannuation. New Zealand Superannuation is taxed, the rate of which depends on their other income. The amount of Superannuation paid depends on the person's household situation.
In the ten years fromthe number of New Zealanders over the age of 65 is projected to grow by aboutThis poses a significant problem for superannuation. The age of eligibility was gradually increased from 61 to 65 between and In a new individual saving scheme was introduced by the same Government, known as KiwiSaver. The main purpose of KiwiSaver is for retirement savings, but younger participants can also use it to save a deposit for their first home. The scheme online roulette new zealand voluntary, work-based and managed by private sector companies called KiwiSaver providers.
As at 30 JuneKiwiSaver had 2. New Zealand's transport infrastructure is "generally well developed. Heavy road users must pay Road User Charges as well, there is limited use of tolling on state highways. There are five international airports. Airways New Zealandanother state owned enterprise, provides air traffic control and communications. New Zealand has 14 international seaports. Present-day telecommunications in New Zealand include telephony, radiotelevisionand internet usage.
A competitive telecommunications market has seen mobile prices drop to some of the lowest in the OECD. Chorus wholesales services to retail providers such as Spark. In the mobile sector, there are three operators: Spark, Vodafone and 2degrees. New Zealand has a high rate online roulette new zealand internet use. As of October [update]there are 1, broadband connections and 65, dial-up connections in New Zealand, of which 1, are residential andare business or government.
The Government has two plans to bring Ultra-Fast Broadband to From tothe energy intensity of the economy per unit of GDP declined by 25 percent. The most substantial electricity generation online roulette new zealand existing and as remaining potential is located on the South Island and to a lesser degree in the central North Island, while the main demand which is continuing to grow is in the northern North Island, particularly the Auckland Region.
Online roulette new zealand requires electricity to be online roulette new zealand north through a power grid which is reaching its capacity more often. For many years New Zealand's economy was built on a narrow range of agricultural products, such as wool, meat and dairy. These products became New Zealand's staple and most online roulette new zealand exports, underpinning the success of the economy, from the s until the s.
In the s, prices for these traditional exports declined, and in New Zealand lost its online roulette new zealand trading position with the United Kingdom when the latter joined the European Economic Community. Between andNew Zealand changed from a somewhat closed and centrally controlled online roulette new zealand to one of the most open economies in the OECD. In the World Bank praised New Zealand as the most business-friendly country in the world. Settlements flourished in areas where these quarries were established.
In the s, Dunedin became the richest city in the country largely on the back of investments from the gold rush. Sheep farming began in the Wairarapa but soon spread up and down the east link from Southland to the East Cape once rudimentary roads and transport became available. Sheep numbers grew quickly and by the mids, there were already a million sheep in New Zealand; by the early s, there were 10 million.
In the s, Julius Vogel was periodically both colonial treasurer and premier. He viewed New Zealand as a "Britain of the South Seas"  and began the development of infrastructure in New Zealand investing in heavily in roads, railways, telegraphs разговаривать mr cashman slots software Николь bridges funded by public borrowing. Economic activity was depressed for some years afterwards, until refrigeration was introduced in Refrigeration transformed and shaped the development of the economy but, in the process, established New Zealand's economic dependence on Britain.
The success of refrigeration was directly related to the growth and development of learn more here in the country. In the 19th century, the bulk of economic activity was in the South Island of New Zealand. From arounddairy farming became increasingly viable in areas which were less suitable for sheep, particularly in Northland, the Waikato and Taranaki. As dairying developed, the North Island slowly became more important to the economy.
Http://antiguo.info/biggest-casino-in-europe.php until that time New Zealand's monetary policy online roulette new zealand been set in the United Kingdom, and the New Zealand Pound was issued by private banks. A separate central bank gave New Zealand's government control of monetary policy for the first time,  although New Zealand remained part online roulette new zealand the Sterling area by pegging its pound online roulette new zealand the British Pound until the introduction of the New Zealand Dollar inwhen the dollar was instead pegged to the Australian dollar.
Having a secure market with guaranteed prices also enabled New Zealand to impose high tariffs on imported cash casino poker room phone number from other countries.
Tough import controls gave local manufacturers the online roulette new zealand to produce similar products 5 euro storten casino, broaden the base of jobs available in New Zealand and still compete against higher priced imports.
Online roulette new zealand Education in New Zealand - Wikipedia
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